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从托福评分标准角度看若何进步自力写作分数

2019-06-06 来源:互联网 作者:新通小编 浏览量: 手机浏览

导读

我们必须起重要周全懂得托福写作评分标准,才能够有针对性偏向的去演习备考。那么,让我们一路从托福写作官方评分标准角度来分析自力写作中关于考生写作说话的请求。

   明天禀享一篇托福写作方面的干货文章,欲望对大年夜家有赞助。>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  我们必须起重要周全懂得托福写作评分标准,才能够有针对性偏向的去演习备考。那么,让我们一路从托福写作官方评分标准角度来分析自力写作中关于考生写作说话的请求。

  根据以下展示的评分标准,不难发明,ETS关于各个分数段的文章的请求中均将逻辑logic一词放在相当的高度,考察大年夜家文章的论证和例证证明过程,同时也对写作说话提出了照应请求。但是,固然看似托福自力写作更加推许考生的逻辑论证过程,但这其实不克不及成为我们的藉口“说话够用就好”;恰好相反,根据很多教员的建议和高分考生的备考经历分享,我们可以发明,一套好的书面表达说话恰好是取得高分的宝贝,由于优胜的说话表达才能可以或许可以或许更加周全的表达考生严密的逻辑思想,广泛的背景知识和优胜的说话操控才能。

  SCORETASK DEION

  5An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

  -Effectively addresses the topic and task

  -Is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications, and/or details

  -Displays unity, progression, and coherence>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  -Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomatic language, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors

  4An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

  -Addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated

  -Is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications, and/or details

  -Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression, or unclear connections

  -Displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning

  3An essay at this level is marked by one or more of the following:

  -Addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, and/or details

  -Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though connection of ideas may be occasionally obscured

  -May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  -May display accurate, but limited range of syntactic structures and vocabulary

  从上述评分标准节选中可以看出,一篇优胜(4分)乃至优良(5分)的文章在说话方面不只请求我们有丰富且精准的词汇表达才能和连接天然流畅的说话表达才能,还须要我们可以或许从篇章中展示出说话用句方面的多样性。然则,毕竟若何表现用句方面丰富的多样性,考生仿佛存在很大年夜的疑问。大年夜家简直都有类似的经历,满怀信念的将精心完成的文章交给师长教员核阅后,却得出Chinglish, awkward expression一类的评价。同窗们会很困惑于为甚么简直没有任何语法缺点的情况下,教员仍会给我们如许的评价。固然这些文章没有太多语法缺点,然则,文中很多的语句确切在应用英语百分百的字面翻译我们的汉语语句,别的再加上关于英美人士用句习气缺乏懂得,考生很轻易在说话表达方面碰到瓶颈,使说话成为写作分数难以进步的瓶颈。

  根据一些好的范文和有英语母语人士写出的浏览材料分析,我们不难发明,简直一切符合Written Standard Formal English这一请求好的文章都具有诸多雷同的说话特点,个中,本文将重点浅谈个中两个表达特点,那就是:variety, 和briefness.>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  Ⅰ VARIETY

  起首,评分标准中“demonstrating syntactic variety”这一请求来看,ETS将说话表达多样性放在了其说话才能请求的第一名。那么,若何使说话真的变得various,关于绝大年夜多半中国粹生来讲其实不是一个轻易的请求,由于大年夜家受汉语说话表达的限制,常常会将全文写作句式和表达逻辑过于单一,不具有说话方面的闪光点。那么,若何将说话变得加倍various,以下两个角度为考生们供给了一些新的表达方法供其参考。

  (1)主语选择方面

  受汉语限制,中国考生简直在最后停止写作演习时如出一辙通篇语句全部以人称词做主语;然则,假设我们多去分析浏览资估中英美本族人士的写作篇章,我们发明他们的文章中很大年夜部分语句是以举措和事物作为主语。是以,为达到说话多样性请求,第一条建议就是大年夜家在用句时可以推敲将部分语句主语停止调换,完成多样化。例如:

  a. introducing children earlier to study foreign languages is deeply recommended by some educationists.>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  在该句中,原句作者并未将此句写成大年夜家更加熟悉的:some educationist deeply recommend to have children introduced to study foreign languages earlier. 相反,作者选用introducing children earlier to study foreign languages 动名词词组做主语,逻辑上用举措,而非人作主语,给大年夜家带来眼前一亮的感到。

  b. the obvious argument in its favor is that young children pick up languages much more easily than teenagers.

  在该句中,原文作者没有采取中国考生最为推许的some people are favoring that young children pick up languages much more easily than teenagers. 罢了这些人所持有的argument作为主语达到说话表达上的多样性。

  c. it is too absolute to define university education as the most important factor in a person’s successful.

  在该例句中,作者异样应用表举措的不定式“to define university education as the most important factor in a person’s successful”。

  类似的例子还有:>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  -Focusing on sports facilities is too narrow an approach and would not have the desired results.

  -The 21st century has already witnessed too much catastrophes.

  -Rarely ever has history seen a man or society kick back or relax.

  -Reactions to World Wars one and two in expressed by the artistic community and historically do not support the idea that the world is changing for the better.

  是以,为了达到说话多样性这一需求,同窗们可以从较为简单的办法动手,改变传同如出一辙的说话习气,适被选择主语,可以结合主动语态物化主语,或去举措化句中主语,改变说话表达习气。

  (2)详细概念笼统化

  常看英美人士所写出浏览材料的考生必定会有印象关于英语本族人士关于名词性从句的应用。实际上,从说话学分支偏向语用学角度分析,英语本族人士关于名词性从句的应用正好表现了英语详细概念笼统化这一特点。例如:>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  a. What we had learnt from the environmental crisis paved the way for us to consolidate the idea about environmental protection.

  在该例句子,该考生并未按照中国粹生的传统表达方法将此句写为:the lessons that we had learnt from the environmental crisis paved the way for us to consolidate the idea about environmental protection, 而是直接应用主语从句what we had learnt from the environmental crisis作为该句主语。

  b. by providing them with periodical training programs, managers hope workers to employ what they have acquired from the workshop to minimize the possibility of making mistakes.

  在该句中,作者将to employ the knowledge learnt from the workshop 调换成了宾语从句what they have acquired from the workshop去表现其说话方面的多样性。

  c. What motivates people to change is a relentless and innate desire for self-improvement.

  乃至在College board供给的某篇满分SAT作文中,该考生也在开篇第一句应用主语从句调换传统说话表达习气。

  是以,作为建议达到说话多样性请求的建议之二,也重点推荐考生在习气性应用定语从句的同时也多去思虑,进修习气应用名词性从句完成详细概念笼统化。

  那么讲完了variety后,我们在一路看一看briefness究竟讲的是甚么。>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  Ⅱ BRIEFNESS

  同窗们上初中以来必定特别骄傲能写出一套长句,特别是在学会应用定语从句后。而然,就在我们乐此不疲孜孜不倦的应用从句从句从句时,却不知,例如如许的句子“I ate an apple which had been given by Marry who comes from USA which is a state in North America that is a continent on the earth which is the only one planet with the trace of living creatures in the whole galaxy”却会完全让你们的读者抓狂。实际上,在我们累计了必定浏览素材后,我们不难发明,英语本族那些老内在书写时,特别针对信息量很大年夜的正式文时,却常常习气应用各类成分去调换从句。控制这一规律后,推荐大年夜家好好进修非谓语动词一章概念,看看若何应用不定式,分词等调换我们的定语从句和状语从句。

  a. From his smile it was evident that Burton had successfully reached an agreement to avert a strike.

  在该例句中,作者并未应用大年夜家更加熟悉的定语从句that would avert a strike去润饰an agreement,而实用不定式举措to avert a strike做定语。>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  b. Having been Lesile’s teammate for three basketball seasons, Claire Knew that Leslie had the experience and temperament requiring of a good team captain.

  在该句中,作者应用如今分词完成时引导缘由状语having been Lesile’s teammate for three basketball seasons调换了缘由状语从句because he had been Lesile’s teammate for three basketball seasons.

  类似例句还有:

  -Traveling through Yosemite, we photographed the beautiful scenery of waterfalls and granite peaks.

  -Carried by the strong, dry winds of the stratosphere, dust from the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens crossed the United States in three days and circled the globe in two weeks.

  -Used as a writing material in ancient Egypt, papyrus was made from a type of plant that flourished in the Nile Valley.>>>懂得出国留学测验备考指南

  结语

  具有一个冲破性的写作分数看似不是一件轻易的事,然则我们在充分懂得到考官究竟想要怎样样的文章以后,便可以根据其评分标准得出本身的备考筹划。再测验测验自力写作说话功底方面,下面若干建议可以或许极大年夜的赞助同窗总结晋升说话根本功,写出考官欲望取得的语句,赞助大年夜家取得心仪的分数

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